Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 7 - The p-Block Elements:
Question-1: Why are pentahalides more covalent than trihalidcs ?
Solution: The group 15 elements have 5 e-1 s in their valence shell. It is difficult to lose 3e-1s to form E3+ and even more difficult to lose 5e-1 s to form E5+. Thus, they have very little tendency to form ionic compounds. Further, since the elements in +5 state have less tendency to lose e-1s than in the +3 state, elements in +5 state have more tendency to share e-1 s and hence pentahalides are more covalent than trihalides.
Question-2: Why is BiH3 the strongest reducing agent amongst all the hydrides of Group 15 elements?
Solution: This is because as we move down the group, the size increases, as a result, length of E-H bond increases and its strength decreases, so that the bond can be broken easily to release H2 gas. Hence, BiH3 is the strongest reducing agent.
Question-3: Why is H2O a liquid and H2S a gas ?
Solution: Due to high electronegativity of O than S, H2O undergoes extensive intermolecular H-bonding. As a result, H2O exists as an associated molecule in which each O is tetrahedrally suiTOunded by four H2O molecules. Therefore, H2O is a liquid at room temperature.
On the other hand,H2S does not undergo H- bonding. It exists as discrete molecules which are held together by weak van der waals forces of attraction. A small amount of energy is required to break these forces of attraction. Therefore, H2S is a gas at room temperature.