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Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 16 - Chemistry in Everyday life:
Question-1: Explain the term, target molecules or drug targets as used in medicinal chemistry.
Solution: Drugs interact with macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids thus these macro molecules are called drug targets. These macromolecules perform various functions in the body for example, proteins perform several roles in the body. Proteins which act as biological catalysts are called enzymes, those which are involved in communication system are called receptors. Carrier proteins carry polar molecules across the cell membrane. Nucleic acids have coded genetic information in the cell whereas lipids and carbohydrates form structural part of cell membranes.
Question-2: Why should not medicines be taken without consulting doctors?
Solution: Some drugs can cause side effects when drug binds to more than one type of receptor. Therefore, doctor’s consultation is must to choose the right drug that has the maximum affinity for a particular receptor site to have desired effect. Dose of the drug taken at a time is also crucial because some drugs in higher doses act as poisons and may cause death.
Question-3: While antacids and antiallergic drugs interfere with the function of histamines, why do these not interfere with the function of each other?
Solution: Drugs are designed to cure some ailment in one organ of the body do not affect the other because they work on different receptors. For example, secretion of histamine causes allergy. It also causes acidity due to release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Since antiallergic and antacids drugs work on different receptors, therefore, antihistamines remove allergy while antacids remove acidity.