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Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 12 - Biotechnology and its Applications:
Question-1: What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.
Solution: Gene therapy is correction of malfunctioning / gene by repairing or adding correct copy. ADA (adenosine deaminase deficiency) is a very rare genetic disorder due to deletion of the gene for adenosine deaminase. The enzyme is crucial for the immune system to functions. It can be treated by gene therapy. This gene is transfected into early embryonic cells of bone marrow for permanent use.
Question-2: Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of rDNA technology and chemistry of oil?
Solution: The genes for the formation of oil in the seed should be identified. The appropriate genes should be removed with the help of restriction endonucleases. Such DNA should then be treated with DNA ligases to make seal DNA at the broken ends. These cells when grown aseptically on nutrient medium will differentiate into a new plant whose seeds will not have oil in them.
Question-3: Consult internet andflnd out howto makeorally activ&protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?
Solution: Orally active protein product that is successfully manufactured is vaccines for preventions of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, herpes, influenza, etc. Gene for antigen are isolated from bacteria and grown along with cut leaf portions of potato plant in antibiotic medium – followed by callus formation and recombinant/transgenic potato are obtained which contain those vaccines.