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Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes:
Question-1: From what you have learnt, can you tell whether enzymes are bigger or DNA is bigger in molecular size? How did you know?
Solution: Enzymes are bigger than DNA as they are proteins and proteins are macromolecules made of amino acids which are bigger than nucleotides. This can also be proved by gel electrophoresis, where denatured protein would not move but denatured DNA will move to a distance. Protein synthesis is regulated by small portions of DNA, called genes.
Question-2: Besides better aeration and mixing properties, what other advantages do stirred tank bioreactors have over shake flasks?
Solution: Shake flasks are used for growing and mixing the desired materials on a small scale in the laboratory. A large scale production of desired biotechnological product is done by using ‘bioreactors’. Besides better aeration and mixing properties, the bioreactors have following advantages
(i)Small volumes of cultures are periodically withdrawn from die reactor for sampling.
(ii)It has a foam control system, pH control system and temperature control system.
(iii)Facilitates even mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor.
Question-3: Describe briefly the followings:
(a)Origin of replication
Solution: (a) Origin of Replication: This is a sequence from where replication starts and any piece of DNA when linked to this sequence can be made to replicate within the host cells. This sequence is also responsible for controlling the copy number of the linked DNA. So, if one wants to recover many copies of the target DNA it should be cloned in a vector whose origin support high copy number.
(b) Bioreactor: Bioreactors can be thought of as vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products by microbes, plant and animal cell and/or their enzymes. The bioreactor provides optimum growth conditions and facilitates achieving the desired products. The most commonly used bioreactor is of stirring type. A stirred tank bioreactor is usually a cylindrical vessel or vessel with a curved base to facilitate mixing of the contents. In the sparged stirred tank bioreactor, sterile air bubbles are sparged. The stirrer facilitates the mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor. A bioreactor has an agitator system, an oxygen delivery system, a foam control system, a temperature control system, pH control system and sampling ports.
(c) Downstream Processing : The product obtained is subjected to a series, of processes collectively called downstream processing before it is made into a finished product ready for marketing. The two main processes are separation and purification. The product is then formulated with suitable preservatives. Such formulations have to undergo clinical trials, in case of drugs.