Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit of Life:
Question-1: Comment on the cartwheel structure of centriole.
Solution: Centrosome is an organelle usually containing two cylindrical structures called centrioles. Both the centrioles in a centrosome lie perpendicular to each other in which each has an organisation like the cartwheel. They are made up of nine evenly spaced peripheral fibrils of tubulin protein. Each of the peripheral fibril is a triplet. The adjacent triplets are also linked. The central part of the proximal region of the centriole is also proteinaceous and called the hub.
Question-2: Briefly describe the cell theory.
Solution: Schleiden and Schwann together formulated the cell theory (1838-39). This theory, however, did not explain as to how new cells were formed. Rudolf Virchow (1855) first explained that cells divided and new cells are formed from pre-existing cells (Omnis cellula-e cellula). He modified the hypothesis of Schleiden and Schwann to give the cell theory a final shape. Cell theory as understood today is
(i) All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
(ii) All cells arise from pre-existing cells.
Question-3: Differentiate between Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER).
Solution: The ER often shows ribosomes attached to their outer surface. The endoplasmic reticulum bearing ribosomes on their surface is called rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). In the absence of ribosomes they appear smooth and are called smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is frequently observed in the cells actively involved in protein synthesis and secretion. They are extensive and continuous with the outer membrane of the nucleus. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the major site for synthesis of lipid. In animal cells lipid-like steroidal hormones are synthesised in SER.