Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 6 - Anatomy of Flowering Plants:
Question-1: State the location and function of different types of meristems.
Solution: Meristems are of three types on the basis of their location in plant body:
(i) Apical meristem: It is present at the apices of root and shoot and is responsible for increase in length.
(ii)Intercalary meristem: It is present at the bases of leaves above the nodes or below the nodes and is responsible for elongation of the organs.
(iii)Lateral meristem : It is present on lateral side and is responsible for increase in girth or diameter.
Question-2: Cut a transverse section of young stem of a plant from your school garden and observe it under the microscope. How would you ascertain whether it is a monocot stem or a dicot stem ? Give reasons.
Solution: Vascular bundles in dicot stem are arranged in a ring whereas in monocot stem vascular bundles are scattered throughout the ground tissue. On the basis of arrangement of vascular bundles it can be ascertained
whether the young stem is dicot or monocot. Besides undifferentiated ground tissue, sclerenchymatous hypodermis, oval or circular vascular bundles with Y shaped xylem are other differentiating features of monocot stem.
Question-3: Why are xylem and phloem called complex tissues?
Solution: A group of different types of cells which perform common function is called complex tissue. Xylem and phloem are called complex tissues as all cells that work as a unit for a common function have different structural organisation. Xylem has four types of cells-tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres. Phloem consists of sieve tube elements, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres. Xylem is associated with conduction of water and minerals from roots to top of plants and phloem is responsible for transport of organic food.