Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 5 - Morphology of Flowering Plants:
Question-1: How is a pinnately compound leaf different from a palmately compound leaf?
Solution: The compound leaves may be of two types, pinnately compound leaf and palmately compound leaf. In pinnately compound leaf, a number of leaflets are present on a common axis, the rachis, which represents the midrib of the leaf as in neem. Pinnately compound leaf may be of different types as unipinnate, bipinna te, tripinna te and decompound. In palmately compound leaf, the leaflets are attached at a common point, i.e., at the tip of petiole, as in silk cotton. Palmately compound leaf may be of different types as unifoliate, bifoliate, trifoliate, quadrifoliate and multifoliate.
Question-2: Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy.
Solution: Phyllotaxy is the pattern of arrangement of leaves on the stem or branch. It is usually of three types – alternate, opposite and whorled. In alternate type of phyllotaxy, a single leaf arises at each node in alternate manner, as in china rose, mustard and sunflower plants. In opposite type, a pair of leaves arises at each node and lie opposite to each other as in Calotropis and guava plants.
If more than two leaves arise at a node and form a whorl it is called whorled phyllotaxy as in Alstonia.
Question-3: Describe the various types of placentations found in flowering plants.
Solution: Placenta is a parenchymatous cushion present inside the ovary where ovules are borne. The number, position, arrangement or distribution of placentae inside an ovary is called placentation. The placentation are of different types namely, marginal, axile, parietal, basal and free central.
(i)Marginal placentation : The placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules are borne on this ridge forming two rows, e.g., pea.
(ii)Axile placentation : When the placenta is axial and the ovules are attached to it in a multilocular ovary, the placentation is said to be axile, e.g., china rose, tomato and lemon.
(iii)Parietal placentation : The ovules develop on the inner wall of the ovary or on peripheral part. Ovary is one-chambered but it becomes two-chambered due to the formation of the false septum, e.g., mustard and Argemone.
(iv)Free central placentation : When the ovules are borne on central axis and septa are absent, as in Dianthus and primrose the placentation is called free central.
(v)Basal placentation: The placenta develops at the base of ovary and a single ovule is attached to it, as in sunflower, marigold.