Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 20 - Locomotion and Movement:
Question-1: With respect to rib cage, explain the following:
a. Bicephalic ribs
b. True ribs
c. Floating ribs
Solution: a. Bicephalic ribs: Each rib is a thin flat bone connected dorsally to the vertebral column and ventrally to the sternum. It has two articulation surfaces on its dorsal end and is hence called bicephalic.
b. True ribs: First seven pairs of ribs are called true ribs. Dorsally, they are attached to the thoracic vertebrae and ventrally connected to the sternum with the help of hyaline cartilage.
c. Floating ribs: Last 2 pairs (11th and 12th) of ribs are not connected ventrally and are therefore, called floating ribs.
Question-2: What are the points for articulation of pelvic and pectoral girdles?
Solution: The components of pelvic girdle are ilium, ischium and pubis. It articulates with, femur through acetabulum. The components of pectoral girdle are scapula and clavicle. It is the glenoid cavity of pectoral girdle in which head . of humerus articulates.
Question-3: Calcium ion concentration in blood affects muscle contraction. Does it lead to tetany in certain cases? How will you correlate fluctuation in blood calcium with tetany?
Solution: Muscle contraction is initiated by a signal sent by the central nervous system (CNS) via a motor neuron. A neural signal reaching this junction releases a neurotransmitter (acetyl choline) which generates an action potential in the sarcolemma. This spreads through the muscle fibre and causes the release of calcium ions into the sarcoplasm. Increase in Ca++ level leads to the binding of calcium with a subunit of troponin on actin filaments and thereby remove the masking of active sites for myosin. Utilising the energy from ATP hydrolysis, the myosin head now binds to the exposed active sites on actin to form a cross-bridge. This pulls the attached actin filaments towards the centre of ‘A’ band. The ‘Z’ line attached to these actins are also pulled inwards thereby causing a shortening of the sarcomere, i.e., contraction. The process continues till the Ca++ ions are pumped back to the sarcoplasmic cisternae resulting in the masking of actin filaments.