Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 2 - Units and Measurement:
Question-1: Explain this common observation clearly: If you look out of the window of a fast moving train, the nearby trees, houses etc., seem to move rapidly in a direction opposite to the train’s motion, but the distant objects (hill tops, the Moon, the stars etc.) seem to be stationary.
Solution: The line joining a given object to our eye is known as the line of sight. When a train moves rapidly, the line of sight of a passenger sitting in the train for nearby trees changes its direction rapidly. As a result, the nearby trees and other objects appear to run in a direction opposite to the train’s motion. However, the line of sight of distant and large size objects e.g., hill tops, the Moon, the stars etc., almost remains unchanged (or changes by an extremely small angle). As a result, the distant object seems to be stationary.
Question-2: Precise measurements of physical quantities are a need of science. For example, to ascertain the speed of an aircraft, one must have an accurate method to find its positions at closely separated instants of time. This was the actual motivation behind the discovery of radar in World War II. Think of different examples in modem science where precise measurements of length, time, mass etc., are needed. Also, wherever you can, give a quantitative idea of the precision needed.
Solution: Extremely precise measurements are needed in modem science. As an example, while launching a satellite using a space launch rocket system we must measure time to a precision of 1 micro second. Again working with lasers we require length measurements to an angstrom unit (1 A° = 10^10m) or even a fraction of it. For estimating nuclear sizes we require a precision of 10^15 m. To measure atomic masses using mass spectrograph we require a precision of 10^30kg and so on.
Question-3: A SONAR (sound navigation and ranging) uses ultrasonic waves to detect and locate objects under water. In a submarine equipped with a SONAR the time delay between generation of a probe wave and the reception of its echo after reflection from an enemy submarine is found to be 77.0 s. What is the distance of the enemy submarine? (Speed of sound in water = 1450 m/s).
Solution: Here speed of sound in water v = 1450 m/s and time of echo t = 77.0 s.
If distance of enemy submarine be d, then t = 2d/v
.’. d=vt/2 =1450 x 77.0/2 =55825 m=55.8 x 10^3 m or 55.8 km.