Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 18 - Body Fluids and Circulation:
Question-1: Name the components of the formed elements in the blood and mention one major function of each of them.
Solution: Blood corpuscles are the formed ele-ments in the blood, they constitute 45% of the blood. Formed elements are – (erythrocytes, RBCs or red blood corpuscles), (leucocytes, WBCs or white blood corpuscles) and throm¬bocytes or blood platelets. The major function of RBCs is to transport oxygen from lungs to body tissues and COz from body tissues to the lungs. White blood cells provide immunity to the body. Blood platelets play important role in blood clotting.
Question-2: What is the significance of atrio-ventricular node and atrio-ventricular bundle in the functioning of heart?
Solution: Atrio-ventricular node (AVN) is a mass of neuromuscular tissue, which is situated in wall of. right atrium, near the base of inter-atrial septum. AV node is the pacesetter of the heart,- as it transmits the impulses initiated by SA node to all parts of ventricles. Atrio-ventricular bundle (A-V bundle) or bundle of His is a mass of specialised fibres which originates from the AVN. Within the myocardium of the ventricles the branches of bundle of His divide into a network of fine fibres called Purkinje fibres. The bundle of His and the Purkinje fibres convey impulse of contraction from the AVN to the myocardium of the ventricles.
Question-3: Explain heart sounds.
Solution: The beating of heart produces characteristic sounds which can be heard by using stethoscope. In a normal person, two sounds are produced per heart beat. The first heart sound Tubb’ is low pitched, not very loud and of long duration. It is caused partly by the closure of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves and partly by the contraction of muscles in the ventricles.
The second heart sound ‘dubb’ is high pitched, louder, sharper and shorter in duration. It is caused by the closure of the semilunar valves and marks the end of ventricular systole.