Important questions based on NCERT syllabus for Chapter 10 - Cell Cycle and Cell Division:
Question-1: Describe the events taking place during interphase.
Solution: The interphase, though called the resting phase, is metabolically quite active. It is the time during which the cell prepares itself for division by undergoing both cell growth and DNA replication in an orderly manner. The interphase is further divided into three phases:
• G1 (Gap 1) phase
• S (Synthesis) phase
• G2 (Gap 2) phase
G1 phase corresponds to the interval between mitosis of previous cell cycle and initiation of DNA replication. During G1 phase the cell is metabolically active and grows continuously but does not replicate its DNA S or synthesis phase marks the period during which DNA synthesis or replication takes place. During this time the amount of DNA doubles per cell. In animal cells, during the S phase, DNA replication occurs in the nucleus, and the centriole duplicates in the cytoplasm. During the G2 phase synthesis of DNA stops while cell growth continues with synthesis of protein and RNA in preparation for mitosis.
Question-2: Find examples where the four daughter cells from meiosis are equal in size and where they are found unequal in size.
Solution: During formation of male gametes (i.e., spermatozoa) in a typical mammal (i.e., human being), the four daughter cells formed from meiosis are equal in size. On the other hand, during formation of female gamete (i.e., ovum) in a typical mammal (i.e., human being), the four daughter cells are unequal in size.
Question-3: Can there be DNA replication without cell division?
Solution: Yes. Endomitosis is the multiplication of chromosomes present in a set in nucleus without karyokinesis and cytokinesis result-ing in numerous copies within each cell. It is of 2 types.
Polyteny: Here chromosomes divide and redivide without separation of chromatids so that such chromosomes become multistranded with many copies of DNA. Such polytene (many stranded) chromosomes remain in permanent prophase stage and do not undergo cell cycle e.g., polytene (salivary glands) chromosome of Drosophila has 512- 1024 chromatids. Here number of sets of chromosomes does not change.
Polyploidy (endoduplication) : Here all chromosomes in a set divide and its chromatids separate but nucleus does not divide. This results in an increase in number of sets of chromosomes in the nucleus (4x, 8x….). This increase in sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy. It can be induced by colchicine and granosan. These chromosomes are normal and undergo cell cycle.